What is CPU? Definition, Types, Parts and Functions (CPU)

Let us know in detail in the article “What is CPU” and “What is the full form of CPU” and “How does CPU work” and “What is CPU.”

What is CPU? Definition, Types, Parts and Functions (CPU)
What is CPU

What is CPU? Definition, Types, Parts and Functions (CPU): Today on this page we will get complete information about what is CPU. You must have read in your school books since childhood that CPU is called the brain of the computer. However, due to less understanding then, you may not know what is the reason behind it, why CPU is so important for computer and why computer depends on CPU to do most of its work.

Let us tell you that CPU is such a part of the computer which is considered very important for the computer, because it works for calculation, action and running the program. Apart from this, many tasks are also performed by the CPU. 

Let us know in detail in the article “What is CPU” and “What is the full form of CPU” and “How does CPU work” and “What is CPU.”

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Full Form of CPU


The full form of CPU in English language  is Central Processing Unit  while in Hindi language the full form of CPU is Central Processing Unit. All the arithmetical and logical processes are handled by the Central Processing Unit (CPU).

The Central Processing Unit is called the brain of the computer, because whatever inputs are given by us to the computer, the processing is done by the Central Processing Unit only and after that the outputs appear on the computer screen.

What is CPU? Definition, Types, Parts and Functions (CPU):

What is CPU?

CPU ie Central Processing Unit  is an electronic machinery. The instructions received from the program are acted upon by the Central Processing Unit, so that you can call your friends or open your web browser or send an email to someone.

The central processing unit is not only in laptop or computer , but it is also considered a part of tablet, smartphone, DVD player or smart washing machine. Billions of transistors are used to work through the Central Processing Unit and through this transistor it also completes various types of calculations.

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Introduction to CPU?

Generally, the work of receiving data input is done by the Central Processing Unit and after that it executes the instruction. Along with this, it processes information.

Mainly the central processing unit works to transfer data from memory , chipset and AGP socket. That's why the main bus is called frontside. Devices such as laptops, tablets, desktops, smartphones and flat screen TV sets all use a central processing unit.

There are many companies manufacturing CPUs in our country, mainly Intel and AMD, which manufacture CPUs for laptops, desktops and servers, on the other hand, Apple and Callcom smartphones and tablets. Considered to be a major manufacturer of Central Processing Unit.

Here we also want to tell you that there are many such computers available in which different types of physical central processing units are found, which are either visible on the same board or appear on different boards.

CPU Work?

After all, it is very important for every person to know what the Central Processing Unit does for the computer or what is the work of the Central Processing Unit, so let's go ahead and know what the work of the Central Processing Unit is. Is.

  • Input is converted into output by the Central Processing Unit.
  • Output devices and input devices are kept connected to each other by the Central Processing Unit .
  • The Central Processing Unit is called the brain of the computer. The computer works on the basis of this.
  • The responsibility of controlling and processing all the tasks of the computer is with the Central Processing Unit only.
  • The results of the data received from the input devices are displayed by the Central Processing Unit.
  • The processing of all the work of the computer is done by the CPU.
  • Input is obtained by accessing the memory through the Central Processing Unit to read the data.
  • When we give any input through the computer keyboard, the processing is done by the CPU itself and the CPU tells the computer to show the relevant result on its screen.

What Does the CPU Look Like?

The latest technology central processing units that are coming in today's time are small in size and they are square in shape with lots of circular small metal connectors visible on the inner side.

However, people who have a central processing unit from a few years ago have pins attached instead of metal connectors. Central processing units are available directly on the motherboard in a socket or sometimes in a slot.

Due to prolonged use of the Central Processing Unit, it starts heating up. That's why there is a heatsink fan on the top of the CPU, which usually comes inbuilt with the CPU, which works to exhaust the heat inside the CPU and try to keep it cool. .

History of CPU

For the first time in the year 1960, the term central processing ie CPU was used in the computer industry. Here we also want to inform you that when the CPU was used for the first time, the term central processing was used to introduce a device that performs software execution, such a device. It was the storage program that came with the computer at the start itself.

With the help of Ted Hoff, on November 15, 1971, Intel introduced the first microprocessor, which was named the Intel 4004. There were about 2300 transistors in it and its price in the market was around $ 200, which is ₹ 14000 in Indian rupees at the present time.

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Important Information Related to CPU

Some important information related to the Central Processing Unit is as follows.

  • The original compliant silicon required to manufacture processors was first discovered in 1823 by a man named Baron Jones Jacobs.
  • The electrical logic circuit was patented in the year 1903 by a person named Nikola Tesla.
  • The first transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories in 1947 by John Warden, Water Britain and William Shockley.
  • The first integrated circuit was developed in 1958 by two men named Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby.
  • On November 15, 1971, the Intel company introduced its first microprocessor, the Intel 4004.
  • The series of micro processors named AM386 was started by AMD company in the month of March 1991.
  • The processor named Pentium 60 MHz was released by the Intel company in the year 1993. It was released on March 22 in 1993 with about 1 million transistors available.
  • The Celeron 553 MHz processor was launched by the Intel company on January 4, 2000.
  • Core 2 Duo E6320 was released by Intel company on 22nd of April in 2006.
  • In the month of November 2008, the Intel company released its first Core i7 desktop processor.
  • In the month of January in the year 2010, Intel company released its first Core i5 mobile processor i5-430M and i5-520E.

CPU Parts

There are mainly 3 parts of CPU which include memory, control unit and arithmetic logic unit. Let us get detailed information about the parts of these three CPUs.

1: Memory

Memory is available in all computers. Whatever important data is there in the computer, all of them are stored in the computer's memory only. It means to say that memory is called the storage of the computer.

Whatever data or input is received by the Central Processing Unit, it is first stored by the Central Processing Unit in its own memory and after that when the process of processing the data starts, it is stored in the Central Processing Unit itself. Stores the unit, which can be used by the user at any time later.

Different types of memory are used by the Central Processing Unit to do this work, which also includes data on which no processing has been done. Such data on which no processing has been done are in the random access memory of the computer and the memory in which the processed data is stored is called ROM memory i.e.

2: Control Unit

Whatever work is done in the computer, the work of managing it is done by the control unit. The control unit fetches the instruction from the memory and then decodes it and then sends it to the central processor.

After this, on the basis of the same instruction, the computer starts the processing process. Here it is very important for you to know that the control unit does not work to store any kind of memory.

3: Arithmetic Logic Unit

The ALU is divided into arithmetic and logic units. Through this, calculations related to mathematics such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are done. The CPU result is presented as an output by the logic section and the process continues in the same way.

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How Does CPU Work?

An important role is played by the Central Processing Unit in determining the power and capacity of any computer. In each new generation of microprocessor, a powerful CPU is presented in the market, which has the capacity to execute instructions at a much faster rate than the previous generation.

The way a central processing unit works is divided into three distinct steps. First an instruction is fetched from memory. After this the instruction is decoded and an attempt is made by the Central Processing Unit to get information about which instruction it is getting the order to work on.

After this, the instructions that are being received are processed and an operation is started. CPU works in these 3 steps and these 3 steps are repeated continuously. As soon as a new task is given to the central processing unit again, the above process starts again. The above process is known as the instruction cycle of the CPU.

Here you also know that after all how the CPU gets to know which instruction to bring forward. Want to tell that the CPU uses the program counter and through this it gets to know which instruction it needs to bring forward.

The address of the location is present in the counter memory, which contains the information of the next instruction to be executed, which is noted in a register by the Central Processing Unit.

Types of CPU

There are mainly three types of Central Processing Unit, namely Single Core CPU, Dual Core CPU, Quad Core CPU, Hexa Core CPU, Octa Core CPU, Deca Core CPU.

1: Single Core CPU

Which are single core CPUs, they have the capacity to do only one task at a time properly. In this way, single core CPU is the first type in the type of CPU.

If you start more than one program or application at the same time in a single core CPU, then you will experience that its processing speed has slowed down, because the single core CPU is unable to complete different tasks simultaneously. faces difficulties. Single core CPU has only one core available. That's why it is called single core.

2: Dual Core CPU

Processors that have double cores are called dual core CPUs. Dual core CPUs are extensively used in devices like computers and laptops to perform general tasks. Dual core CPU works very well as compared to single core CPU as double cores are available in it.

If a dual core CPU is installed in a device, then the complete control of that device is available with it. The dual core CPU enables the application to run for long hours using data continuously.

3: Quad Core CPU

The processor in which 4 cores are available is called Quad Core CPU ie Quad Core Processor. Quad core CPU has good processing speed as compared to single core CPU and double core CPU. That's why quad core CPU is available in this device.

This device works much faster than single core and double core CPU. In the device where quad core CPU is available, multi-task can be done easily in that device. Like editing videos, designing or playing games.

4: Hexa Core processors

Just as Dual Core CPU has two cores, in the same way it has 6-core available, due to which it works very fast. Better results are achieved by faster calculations, which means that the performance of our computers is even better.

5: Octa Core Processor

Dual core CPU has 2 cores, hexa core has six cores, similarly octa core processor has 8 cores available, due to which faster command processes. Playing games in a computer with this type of processor is a lot of fun.

6: Deca Core Processor

Deca core processors have 10 independent cores available. It is being used extensively in the tenth generation computers. Deca core processor is also being used in the smartphones that are coming in the present time.

What do you Understand by CPU?

The full meaning of CPU is Central Processing Unit. In books, CPU is called the brain of the computer, that is, CPU is the mind of the computer. The central processing unit works in the same way as the human brain works. Although all the work in it is already programmed. All the important tasks of the computer are handled by the Central Processing Unit.

The central processing unit receives the instructions of the active software and hardware used in the computer and displays the output.

Not only this, the Central Processing Unit also plays an important role in making connections between input devices and output devices. Apart from this, it also works to store all the programs of the application software and operating system in its memory.

What is the Function of CPU?

The Central Processing Unit is considered to be the main part of the computer and is also called the brain of the computer. The main function of the Central Processing Unit is to process whatever inputs are coming to the computer and whatever instructions are coming.

Arithmetic, logical, control related work, input work and output work are completed by the Central Processing Unit. Generally it is known as processor. If the CPU is separated from a computer, then the computer will remain just a plastic box, it will lose the capacity to perform many of its essential functions.

How Many Types of CPU are There?

There are many types of central processing unit and each type has different functionality. As compared to single core CPU, double core has better working capacity, same quad core has better working capacity than double core.

There are many types of CPU, out of which the main types are named Single Core / Single Core CPU, Dual Core / Dual Core CPU, Quad Core / Quad Core CPU, Hexa Core / Hexa Core CPU, Octa Core / Octa Core CPU, Deca Core/Deca Core CPU.

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What are the Three Parts of CPU?

The names of three parts of CPU are Arithmetic Logic Unit, Memory Unit and Control Unit. Control Unit is called Control Unit in Hindi language and Arithmetic Logic Unit is called Arithmetic Logic Unit in Hindi language and Memory Unit is called Smriti Unit in Hindi language.

CPU Price

We want to tell you that the Central Processing Unit is manufactured by different big IT companies in the country and the world, which have different facilities and features. Therefore, keeping in view the cost cost by the companies, the price of their CPU is also kept separately.

In this way, if you want to get information about the price of a specific CPU, then for this you have to go to the Internet first.

And after that you have to write the name of the brand whose CPU you want to know the price of and then search by writing CPU in English language. After this, you will get the information about the number of CPUs made by that brand and their price.

Where to Buy CPU?

To shop for CPU, you can go to your nearest computer or laptop sales shop, there you will get CPU made by different brands, by analyzing the price of which you can choose the best quality one for your system. Buy CPU.

Apart from this, if you live in an area where there is no computer or laptop shop nearby, then you can also book your favorite brand CPU through online websites like Amazon or Flipkart and do central processing right from home. units can be obtained. Online you will get the facility of taking CPU in installments also.

What is CPU Clock Rate?

The central processing unit is told by the clock signal to restart its series of processing operations. A computer with a faster clock rate can start the sequence more than once, due to which the CPU can work faster and perform faster operations. Nevertheless, the clock rate needs to match the CPU's operation in order to function properly.

For a computer to work, the central processing unit needs to complete a cycle and send all the important signals needed to complete an operation before sending the clock signal to restart the cycle. More complex central processing units may have multiple clock signals.

What does CPU do?

In short, the Central Processing Unit is responsible for handling the logical and mathematical operations and executing the given instructions. CPU can execute millions of instructions per second. However, it can only execute one instruction at a time.

The Central Processing Unit first receives the input through some input devices such as monitor, keyboard, mouse and microphone and then decodes it and then completes the processing operations on it. After this the respective results appear on the computer screen.

What is CPU Core?

The latest technology computers that are coming in the present time have the capacity to support more than one core inside the main chip. Want to tell that the more cores are available in a CPU, the faster that CPU will perform computing tasks and will have the capacity to complete multiple tasks simultaneously.

Dual core CPUs, for example, have two CPUs on a single chip, and this means you can run two instructions at the same time.

What is Hyperthreading?

A technology called hyperthreading is also supported by modern CPUs. In which one physical core is present as many physical cores, which makes the operating system think that there are more cores than it actually is.

It also makes the computer think it has more power than it actually has. In fact, hyperthreading isn't actually a physical core, but it appears to be.

Mixtures of both physical and virtual cores make programs faster and provide the CPU with more computing power.

Is the CPU the Brain of the Computer?

While describing computer components in layman's terms, experts often refer to the central processing unit as the brain of the computer. However, if seen, the CPU also needs instructions to work, which are given through input devices.

In this way, now it depends on you whether you consider CPU as the brain of the computer or not. Although in most of the books, CPU is described as the brain of the computer, so we have to accept the same.

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How is CPU Made?

CPU is manufactured through silicon chip. Silicon is found extensively in desert areas. That's why sand is used to manufacture semiconductors like CPUs. Under this, in order to manufacture a semiconductor through sand, the sand needs to pass through two factories, in which the silicon is extracted and separated from the sand in the first factory.

For this, a temperature of about 1000 degree Celsius is used and some special types of chemicals are also used. After this process is completed, silicon is obtained in the form of small crystals.

Now what happens is that the crystals obtained are heated and then the crystal is made into a cylinder of silicon using a special type of chemical and after that testing is done whether the silicon is pure or not. No.

If the silicone passes the test, it is then divided into thin slices.
Now this material is delivered to the chip manufacturing factory on which many transistors are manufactured.

For this, ultraviolet laser is used. CPU is manufactured by following some other similar process. You can refer to tutorial videos on youtube to get a detailed understanding of how a CPU is made and get a better understanding of how a CPU is made.

Which is the Best CPU?

Especially for you, below we have given the names of some of the best CPUs.

  • Intel® Core™ i5-8600
  • AMD Ryzen 5 1600
  • AMD Ryzen 5 2600X
  • Intel® Core™ i5-8600K Desktop Processor
  • Intel® Core™ i7 8700K Desktop Processor

CPU Maker

Below you are giving the names of some CPU making companies, which are considered to be the top companies in the field of CPU making.

  • Intel
  • AMD
  • Nvidia
  • Qualcomm
  • Motorola
  • Hewlett- Packard
  • Acer Inc.
  • Media Tek
  • Sun
  • GlobalFoundries

Is CPU an Input Device or an Output Device?

Many people want to know the answer to the question that what kind of device is the CPU. Is CPU an input device or CPU is an output device? If the answer is given then CPU is neither an input device nor it is an output device.

The Central Processing Unit is the main part of the computer that processes instructions, performs calculations, and manages the exchange of information through the computer system.

The central processing unit communicates with input, output, and storage devices to get the job done. The central processing unit receives input commands from various input devices such as touch screen, keyboard, mouse, etc., on which the CPU processes and then outputs the results in the form of a monitor or printer. Thus the Central Processing Unit is the brain of the computer.

What is Virtual CPU?

In cloud computing, divided CPU operations are incorporated into virtual central processing units. In which a host is similar to a machine on which the virtual system works. Virtual central processing units are dependent on software.

Which means that a normal central processing unit is physically available inside the computer, but when virtual central processing units are not available and processing is done by software, then it is created by the hypervisor when needed instead. Let's go

What is Cache Memory in CPU?

The cache memory in the central processing unit is a type of hardware cache. It is used by the CPU to reduce the general cost, such as time or energy, of accessing data from primary memory. A cache is faster memory. It is very close to the processor core. Most CPUs that come include separate independent caches.

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Why is My CPU Slow?

The central processing unit starts to slow down due to prolonged use of the CPU, overheating of the CPU, insufficient power, or poor ventilation. Sometimes viruses also come in the CPU, due to which the CPU gets hijacked and because of this also the CPU works slow.

How to Maintain CPU?

To keep your central processing unit in good shape, you have to pay attention to whether your computer fans are clean or not. Apart from this, you have to keep the CPU in such a place where the movement of air is maintained continuously so that even after using it for a long time, the CPU does not get too hot.

You should use antivirus or antimalware software to protect CPU from malware. You will get information about the best antivirus from the internet. If you use the CPU for a long time and it is getting hot, then power it off for a while.

By doing this the CPU will cool down. After that you can start using it again. From time to time you have to keep checking your CPU, get it repaired in case of any defect.

FAQs Regarding What is CPU

1. What is CPU short answer?

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a computer's core component that serves as its "control center." The CPU, sometimes known as the "central" or "main" processor, is a sophisticated combination of electronic circuitry that executes the operating system and applications on the machine.

2. What is in CPU?

It is made up of an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), a control unit, and a number of registers. The CPU is frequently referred to simply as the processor.

3. What is CPU and example?

CPU: Central Processing Unit | Article on AP CSP | Khan Academy
The CPU is a computer's brain, including all of the circuitry required to process input, store data, and output results. The CPU is continually obeying computer program instructions that tell it which data to process and how to process it. We couldn't run applications on a computer without a CPU.

4. What is CPU and its uses?

The central processing unit, or CPU, is found in all types of computing devices, including tablets, PCs, and laptops. While you're surfing the web, generating papers, playing games, or executing software programs, your computer's CPU calculates and interprets instructions.